Team Exercise: How Parenting Styles Affect The Next Generation

Team Exercise: How Parenting Styles Affect The Next Generation

 

Because the family and business are inextricably intertwined in family businesses, parenting plays a critical role in shaping the next generation and their contribution to the family business. Parents influence whether their children are willing to (1) work in the family business (Jaskiewicz et al., 2015), (2) serve as successors (McMullen & Warnick, 2015), and (3) whether a smooth succession occurs (Cater et al., 2016). Parents also affect the behaviors and career choices of their children (Young & Friesen, 1992), particularly for those of business-owning families because the parent-child relationship transfers to the family business. As such, it is important to understand how different styles of parenting shape the next generation and ultimately influence the functioning and performance of family businesses.

Family psychologists identify four parenting styles based on the degree of support and control parents provide (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) (Baumrind, 1967).

 

 

low control

high control

high support

permissive

authoritative

low support

neglectful

authoritarian

However, there is little understanding as to how these parenting styles influence the dynamics that develop within family businesses. In this exercise, teams of students are required to research a parenting style and provide examples of such parent-child interactions based on TV programs or movies. Each team is also required to explore how their assigned parenting style likely transfers to and manifests in a family business.

This exercise has been successfully used with undergraduate students studying family business as well as students enrolled in a course designed for next generation family business members.

The Project

This experiential exercise is designed to enhance student learning about the four parenting styles, how they influence the way individuals develop relationships with others, and, in turn, how these behaviors can affect the dynamics within a family business. The exercise is designed to be used in family business courses or workshops when discussing family factors and how they affect the behaviors of next generation members, and ultimately influence the family business. An example of a student presentation can be found below.

 

Advance Preparation

Students should be given at least two to three weeks to complete the team project. In classes of 25 students or less, students should be separated into four groups of 3 to 5 members each - one for each parenting style. With larger classes, the instructor can either have each parenting style presented by two or more groups or offer another project for the remaining student teams. With a total of four team presentations, usually 1 or 2 class periods are required depending on the length of the class. This gives all students the opportunity to deliver their presentation and attend all other presentations in the course. The directions for this project are below and can be downloaded as a PDF to share with students.

Approximate Timing

There are several components for the timing of the project:

  • After teams are formed, the explanation of the project will take between 5 and 10 minutes.
  • Presentations will take between 15 and 20 minutes per team.
  • The discussion of the presentations can either be combined or after each presentation. If done after each presentation, the discussion usually lasts 5 to 10 minutes.
  • The discussion will be led by the instructor and involve all class members

Directions for Students

Objective:

The purpose of this assignment is for student teams to learn more about the different styles of parenting, what they mean for parent-child and sibling relationships, and how, in turn, these parenting styles are likely to extend to family relationships within a family business. Each team will research a different parenting style, find examples from film and/or TV series that reflect the parenting style, and then present their findings and recommendations to the class. Instructors will randomly assign a parenting style to each student team.

Each presentation should be 15 - 20 minutes, including the use of film and/or TV clips. Teams should provide an educational overview of their parenting style, explain how it manifests in families, and then extend their findings to the family business context. Film and/or TV clips should be used to demonstrate patterns of behavior and interaction that reflect the parenting style and possible outcomes that result. Presentations should end with advice for family business leaders; these can include advice for downplaying negative outcomes from a parenting style, realistic strategies to alter a damaging parenting style, how to lessen the transfer of negative family relationships to the family business, and/or how to capitalize on positive parenting components/ parenting styles in a family business.

Components of the Presentation:

Each presentation should be 15 to 20 minutes long.

Teams should: 

  1. Provide an educational overview of their assigned parenting style
  2. Explain how it manifests in families
  3. Extend their findings to the family business context
  4. Provide advice to family business leaders about:
  • How to downplay the negative outcomes from a parenting style.
  • Realistic strategies to alter a damaging parenting style.
  • How to lessen the transfer of negative family relationships to the family business.
  • How to capitalize on positive parenting components/ parenting styles in a family business.
  • Include Film and/or TV clips that demonstrate patterns of behavior and interaction that reflect the parenting style and possible outcomes that result from it. These clips should be between 30 seconds and 1 minute, and should show the parenting style within family interactions

Deliverables

  • A Grading Rubric for the presentation can also be downloaded as a PDF. (Available above)
  • Short paper that provides overview of the presentation and includes references embedded in the text, APA style. (3-5 pages)
  • List of references (additional page)

Discussion

This project is a great way for students to explore the important role parents play in shaping the next generation. It pushes students to critically think about how relationship patterns are formed in families that then transfer to the business, for better or worse. It also encourages them to consider how different parenting styles contribute to the next generation’s performance working in their family business. In turn, students are encouraged to reflect on how positive outcomes associated with a parenting style can be capitalized upon in the family business setting while negative outcomes are prevented or minimized.

Variations for the Assignment

  • An alternative option for this project is to have role play scenarios of parent-child dyads instead of videos or have a combination of role play and videos.
  • An interesting variation to add to this project is how parenting styles can manifest in different cultural backgrounds. For example, how do these parenting styles manifest in patriarchal cultures, or cultures with different deference to authority?

Recommended reading available online to accompany project

4 Types of Parenting Styles and Their Effects -   https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/

Recommended academic readings:

Chao, R. K. 2001. Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans. Child Development72(6): 1832-1843. 

Combs, J. G., Shanine, K. K., Burrows, S., Allen, J. S., & Pounds, T. W. 2020. What do we know about business families? Setting the stage for leveraging family science theories. Family Business Review33(1): 38-63. 

Cramer, P. 2011. Young adult narcissism: A 20-year longitudinal study of the contribution of parenting styles, preschool precursors of narcissism, and denial. Journal of Research in Personality45(1), 19-28. 

Givertz, M., & Segrin, C. 2014. The association between overinvolved parenting and young adults’ self-efficacy, psychological entitlement, and family communication. Communication Research41(8): 1111-1136. 

McMullen, J. S., & Warnick, B. J. 2015. To nurture or groom? The parent–founder succession dilemma. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice39(6): 1379-1412. 

Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., Bauer, A., & Taylor Murphy, M. 2012. The association between overparenting, parent-child communication, and entitlement and adaptive traits in adult children. Family Relations61(2): 237-252. 

Sorkhabi, N., & Mandara, J. (2013). Are the effects of Baumrind's parenting styles culturally specific or culturally equivalent? In R. E. Larzelere, A. S. Morris, & A. W. Harrist (Eds.), Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development (p. 113–135). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13948-006

 

 

Grading Rubric Presentation

Group: ________________________

 

Components of Project

Possible Points

Points Obtained

Content of the Presentation

 

 

Delivery of Presentation

 

 

Presentation Aids

 

 

Cohesiveness as Group during Presentation

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

Below Expectations

Approaching Expectations

Meets Expectations

Exceeds Expectations

Content of Presentation

Analysis of the Learning Style

The presentation does not reflect any analysis of the parenting style. It reflects the interests of the speakers.

Presenters provide a superficial analysis of the parenting style that is not clearly connected to the examples at hand.

Presenters provide in-depth analysis of some aspects of the parenting style. However, this analysis is not comprehensive and inclusive of all of the components of this parenting style.

Presenters provide an in-depth analysis of the parenting style and connect it well with their examples.

Explanation of its manifestation in families

There is no explicit explanation of how parenting styles manifest in the family.

Presenters identify some of the ways parenting styles are manifested in families, but these are not clear.

Presenters identify the ways parenting styles are manifested in families, but this is not done effectively.

 

Presenters provide a clear explanation of how parenting styles manifest in the family, they identify clearly how each of the characteristics are present in a family and describe how it affects the dynamics of the family.

Manifestation of Learning Style in the Family Business Context

The presenters do not explain how parenting styles are visible in family businesses.

Presenters identify some but not all the different ways that parenting styles are visible in family businesses.

The presenters make suggestions about how parenting styles manifest in the family business. However, they provide limited articulation for how these styles are visible in a family firm.

The presenters provide a clear articulation of how parenting styles manifest in the family business in the long and short-term run. They identify challenges and opportunities that are evident based on the style chosen.

Completeness and comprehensiveness

Fails to address key components of the project.

Provides limited coverage of relevant issues related to the parenting style.

Addresses most of the areas of the project.

Provides basic coverage of relevant issues related to the parenting styles. 

Addresses each area of the project to some extent. Provides adequate coverage of the parenting styles. 

Thoroughly addresses each area of the project. Identifies and comments on significant and relevant issues related to each part of the project. 

Understanding of Material

Apparent misunderstanding of material 

Limited understanding of material displayed by vague, unclear language 

Understanding of material demonstrated most of the time.  

Clear understanding of material displayed by clear, concrete language and complex ideas. 

Meaningful application in the use of videos

Ideas are unclear and/or not well-developed. Poor use of videos 

Unelaborated ideas that are not fully explained or supported, repetitive details. Videos are not well selected. 

Depth of thought supported by selection and contextualization of videos.

Depth and complexity of thought supported by rich, pertinent details; supporting evidence (i.e., videos) leads to high-level idea development 

Support/Evidence for Claims

Little or no data to support the main ideas/argument. Information used is not accurate.

Some evidence is provided, but information is not fully explained, relevant to arguments or credible. Missing important evidence.

Many details support the argument but some are not fully explained. Some evidence is not relevant.

Argument is clearly supported by accurate evidence that is credible by the audience. Sufficient details are provided to support the main points presented.

Delivery

Clarity of Explanation

No apparent logical order of presentation, unclear focus.

Content is loosely connected, transitions lack clarity 

Sequence of information is well-organized for the most part; more clarity with transitions is needed 

Development of ideas in presentation are clear through use of specific and appropriate examples, transitions are clear and create a succinct and even flow 

Verbal components of the presentation

Speakers are unable to deliver the presentation coherently.

Speakers seem uncomfortable. Several problems with language usage. Presenters speak too slow or too fast, too loud or too soft, and with many fillers.

Some degree of nervousness is apparent. Minor problems with language usage. Presenters have problems but adapt throughout the presentation.

Speakers are fluent and poised. They use language comfortably and appropriately for the audience and situation. They speak at an effective rate and volume, with very few fillers.

Non-Verbal components of the presentation

Non-verbal components of the presentation distract from the ability of the audience to receive the message.

Speakers are gesturing too much or too little. They use distracting gestures, do not have enough eye contact and use space inappropriately.

Speaker gesturing too much or too little, however they adapt through the presentation. Eye contact varies greatly. The speakers are able to use space well for most part.

Speakers use gestures comfortably, and in line with their presentation styles. Eye contact is appropriate for the audience. Use of Space is appropriate for the situation. 

Adherence to presentation guidelines

Goes beyond the time limit, forgets to follow presentation guidelines, and misses parts of the project.

 

Stays within time limit and follows the guidelines.

 

Presenters adhere to the guidelines of the presentation and provide extra information.

Q&A

Speakers unable to answer questions, or lose control of the process

Speakers are thrown off-balance by the questions. Speakers have difficulty responding to some questions

Speakers have some difficulty answering the questions concisely. Speakers struggle with answering some questions.

Speakers answer questions thoroughly, concisely, and knowledgeably. The process is smooth.

Presentation Aids

Design

Too much visual design components

 

Slides have a clear general design. However, there are problems in the distribution of info.

Slides are easy to see and understand during the presentation.

Amount of Information

Slides have too much information.

 

 

Slides have enough information and are easy to understand.

Readability

Font is too small and the audience cannot read.

 

 

Slides are easy to read and follow.

Spelling & Grammar

Frequent errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation 

Occasional errors in grammar and punctuation, and spelling 

Minor grammatical errors and questionable word choices. Spelling has been proofed.  

Nearly error-free which reflects clear understanding and thorough proofreading 

Effective use of Visual Aids

Presents all of the information at the same time. Presenters read from slides.

 

 

Presenters are able to interact with the audience at the same time that they present information.

 

 

 

Cohesiveness of Group

Cohesiveness of Group

Presenters are disconnected from each other, and do not work as a group.

There seems to be some connection between members. However, there is very little consideration for other group members.

Presenters seem to work well together. They understand each other. However, they have parts in which they show lack of practice as a team.

Presenters work very well together. It seems like they have practiced and are able to work as a team.

 

 

 

 


Kimberly Eddleston
Kimberly Eddleston
Schulze Distinguished Professor of Entrepreneurship / D'Amore-McKim School of Business / Northeastern University
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Isabel C Botero
Isabel C Botero
George E. and Mary Lee Fischer Chair in Family Entrepreneurship / Management & Entrepreneurship / University of Louisville
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Cite this Article
DOI: 10.32617/601-6048f904eab23
Eddleston, Kimberly, and undefined. "Team Exercise: How Parenting Styles Affect The Next Generation." FamilyBusiness.org. 10 Mar. 2021. Web 27 Feb. 2024 <https://familybusiness.org/content/team-exercise-how-parenting-styles-affect-the-next-generation>.
Eddleston, K., & Botero, I.C. (2021, March 10). Team exercise: how parenting styles affect the next generation. FamilyBusiness.org. Retrieved February 27, 2024, from https://familybusiness.org/content/team-exercise-how-parenting-styles-affect-the-next-generation